Negotiation

Tools

The Conflict Cycle

This tool describes the stages of any conflict. It is essential to go through this cycle before trying to negotiate between opposing parties in order to understand the roots of the conflict and adapt your strategy.

Interest-Based Negotiation

Understanding the differences between interests and positions is the cornerstone of collaborative negotiation success. When preparing for a negotiation, it is essential to ask "What do they want?" and  "Why do they want it?". Look for overlap in the interests shared, despite different positions taken.

Identify the Stakeholders and use The DEPP Chart

The Ladder of Inference

This tool maps out how people reach conclusions and is particularly useful in cases when the conclusions by different people are in opposition.  It is particularly relevant in Conflict Resolution when there are gaps amongst the different parties. This tool enables students to analyze the reasoning process and to go back and understand which information was significant in reaching a particular conclusion.  This could include determining whether important information was missing for one party and whether adding in that missing information could change the conclusions reached, perhaps even closing the gaps in understanding between the parties.

The Reconciliation Pyramid

"The Reconciliation Pyramid is a metaphor for presenting the progressive stages antagonists have to overcome on their way to reconciliation. The starting point of the reconciliation process is becoming acquainted with the clashing narratives relating to the core issues of their conflict. Familiarity with the narratives paves the way to full acknowledgement of them and may prepare the ground for a “warmer” move, like the expressions of empathy toward the other. Empathizing with the enemy can lead to the assumption of at least partial responsibility for the plight of the “other.” This relatively “cold” step may be followed by material restitution (a legally based formal step) and requests for forgiveness. The process reaches its apex when the two sides seriously and honestly consider replacing their old, ethno-centric narratives with new, integrated narratives, based on the mutual acknowledgment of past miseries and a joint vision of a the future". 

Yehudith Auerbach, The Reconciliation Pyramid—A Narrative-Based Framework for Analyzing Identity Conflicts, Political Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2009.

Zone of Possible Effective Cooperation

Using what you’ve discovered about the stakeholders’ interests and goals, think of a zone of possible agreement between the parties on the specific issue you chose –that would be your area of consensus.
In that consensus zone, what could the parties do together to make progress on the issue?

That would be your ZOPEC.